Classroom Training

Failure and Damage Mechanisms of Pressurized Equipment

ASME and API codes are commonly referred to for the design, fabrication, inspection, and testing of pressurized equipment. Failure and damage mechanisms during service are however generally not addressed in these codes. Understanding and determining the causes of failure or degradation is essential when conducting a general inspection, fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment or risk-based-inspection (RBI) of an equipment or plant.


As determination of the cause of failures/degradation can be quite complex due to widely varying material/environmental condition interactions in most plants, API Recommended Practice 571 was published to provide information and general guidelines to assist inspection personnel and engineers in identifying likely causes of damage, as well as to introduce the concepts of service-induced deterioration and failure modes.


While API 571 does serve its purpose well, this training course aims to provide participants with deeper understanding of the failure/damage mechanisms through case studies, comprehensive presentation of metallurgical/scientific evidence and explanation of the fundamentals behind the respective mechanisms. The course also introduces the concepts of metallurgical failure analysis, which would help participants on diagnosing failure and damage mechanisms.



The training provides participants with:

  • Basic concepts in metallurgy
  • Overview of failure analysis and the techniques of diagnosing failure modes and damage mechanisms
  • Understanding of general damage mechanisms for all industries
  • Understanding of damage mechanisms in refining/petrochemical industries (for 3rdday course). Integrationof theoretical and practical knowledge through case studies.
  • Ability to recognize and evaluate different failure/damage mechanisms and their implicationson service life.


26th to 28th July 2022


09:00 – 17:00 (GMT+8)

Course outline:

Day 1 (Part I)

  • Introduction and Course Objectives
  • Basic Concepts of Metallurgy
  • Overview of Failure Analysis and Diagnostic Techniques
  • Mechanical and Metallurgical Failure Mechanisms

Day 2 (Part I )

  • Uniform or Localized Loss of Thickness
  • High Temperature Corrosion
  • Environmental-Assisted Cracking

Day 3 (Part Il)

  • Refining/Petrochemical Industries
  • Uniform or Localized of Thickness
  • Environmental-Assisted Cracking
  • Other Mechanisms

Who should attend?

The course is designed for Engineers (AEs, CPs, etc), Inspectors, Consultants, Adjusters, Maintenance and Plant Operators, and Safety and Quality Assurance Personnel. It is essential for those whose work involve safety, inspection, maintenance, trouble-shooting, plant operations and prevention of failures.

About the Trainer

Er. LIAM KokChye

BEng (Hons) M.Eng, P.Eng, Sr M.I.E.S. NACE

Mechanical Engineer (PE) –Integration of mechanical engineering and materials/corrosion expertise for condition assessment and forensic engineering work.Expert Engineer. (IES Engineering Expert Panel –Forensic Engineering and Materials/Corrosion)Specialist Professional Engineer in Lifting Equipment and Cranes (PEB). Who’s Who in Engineering (Singapore), Snr. Member of IES and NACE

He has more than 30 years of consulting experience in failure analysis, forensic engineering and condition assessment for a wide spectrum of industries such as oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceutical, construction, aerospace, marine and offshore. He has also served as an expert witness for many litigation and insurance cases. Through his many years of materials and corrosion consultancy work, he is able to provide actual case studies to elaborate on the various concepts and mechanisms of corrosion in a practical manner.

Areas of Expertises

  • Failure analysis of mechanical equipment/components and structural facilities
  • Condition and remnant life assessment of high temperature equipment/plants, lifting equipment and structural facilities
  • Forensic engineering investigation of industrial incidents
  • Materials and corrosion consultancy
  • Expert witness for insurance industry and litigation

Recent Projects



  • Materials/corrosion consultant in DNV –5 years
  • Engineer consultant and director in Matcor –27years
  • Principal consultant in Matcor (now a Cetim company) -current


  • Bachelor in Engineering (Mechanical, Hons), 1986
  • Master of Engineering, 1990

About the Trainer


BEng MSE (Hons),API 510, API 580

Graduated in Material Science and Engineering, she has been an engineer and a consultant for 10 years within Matcor. She has performed numerous cases in the failure analysis and forensic investigation for system and component failures for various industries.

Judy is one of the leads to perform the remnant life assessment and risk based inspection assessment for pressure vessels and piping for service life extension purpose.She also has experience as an expert consultant for litigation and insurance claims and loss adjusting cases.

Areas of Expertises

  • Failure Analysis
  • Remnant Life Assessment
  • Fitness for Service Assessment
  • Risk Based Inspection (RBI) Assessment
  • API Inspection

Recent Projects



  • Matcor (2009 -Today) : Consultant


  • Bachelor Degree –NUS –Material Science and Engineering –2009
  • API 510 Pressure Vessel Inspection Certification –2014, 2020
  • API 581 Risk Based Inspection Certification –2016